AnatomyBox
Anatomy Repository
AnatomyBox
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malformalady:

Chinese Foot Binding
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bpod-mrc:

21 July 2014
Ripped Genes
X marks the spot of the location of our body’s genetic material, as that’s the normal shape of chromosomes. Formed from two identical strands (arms) of DNA joined at a single point, the set of chromosomes holds our genetic blueprint in each of our cells. But when a cell divides, their cross-like form changes radically (stained dark purple). Long tentacular protein spindles (green lines) creep out from opposite sides of the cell and latch onto one arm of the chromosome – the two spindle groups seen at the centre of the image are one cell’s worth. After reaching their targets, the spindles then retract, tearing the chromosomes apart thus dividing the genetic material in two. Understanding this complex process could help fight maladies linked to cell division such as cancer and birth defects. And help is much needed because developing medical treatments is never as easy as following a treasure map.
Written by Jan Piotrowski
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Image by Nasser RusanLife: Magnified Exhibition from National Institutes of Health, USACopyright held by National Institutes of HealthResearch published in Nature, June 2014
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malformalady:

Complete heterochromia
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biomedicalephemera:

xiphoidprocess:

biomedicalephemera:

Bones, cartilage, and muscles of the larynx.
The laryngeal folds are where voice is produced, and is located just below where the pharynx separates into the esophagus and the larynx. During the swallowing action, if solid matter enters the larynx, a strong coughing reflex is triggered to protect the lungs. This is also triggered at other times, if solid matter touches the glottis. Should that coughing reflex not dislodge the bolus, suffocation can occur.
During puberty, the protective laryngeal cartilage (specifically the thyroid cartilage) expands and forms the Adam’s apple - in males, the cartilage fuses at approximately a 90° angle, and in females, it fuses at approximately 120°. Both genders have Adam’s apples! The difference in fusion means that the male vocal cords have more room to grow outward, and form a deeper voice. 
When an adult is hanged, throttled or strangled in a murder, the hyoid bone - the only bone in the body not directly connected to other bones - is almost always cracked or split apart. However, since it does not completely fuse until early adulthood, children and adolescents do not always show this distinctive sign.
Atlas d’Anatomie Descriptive du Corps Humain. C. Bonamy and Paul Broca, 1866.

It’s actually been known for a very long time that the hyoid is not “almost always cracked or split apart” in hangings or strangulations. Though there isn’t a ton of literature about it, reports of traumatic hyoid fracture in strangulation and hanging cases ranges from near nil to 67%. Probably the best-known study of this type (Ubelaker, 1992) found the highest rate of traumatic hyoid fracture occurs in manually-strangled adults with an incidence rate of 34%. In very rare cases, hyoid fracture can occur outside of hanging, throttling, and strangulation.
tl;dr strangulation definitely does not always equal traumatic hyoid fracture, and hyoid fracture sometimes does not mean strangulation.

Duders I was totally wrong. Well, mostly wrong. Or at least sort of wrong, which still warrants correction. Check out the links provided by XP! They’re definitely pointing in a different direction than my anatomy textbook.
…on a related note, damn do I wish that related fields of medicine would communicate more often. A 2002 anatomy text should not have information that’s been out of date for upwards of a decade.
biomedicalephemera:

xiphoidprocess:

biomedicalephemera:

Bones, cartilage, and muscles of the larynx.
The laryngeal folds are where voice is produced, and is located just below where the pharynx separates into the esophagus and the larynx. During the swallowing action, if solid matter enters the larynx, a strong coughing reflex is triggered to protect the lungs. This is also triggered at other times, if solid matter touches the glottis. Should that coughing reflex not dislodge the bolus, suffocation can occur.
During puberty, the protective laryngeal cartilage (specifically the thyroid cartilage) expands and forms the Adam’s apple - in males, the cartilage fuses at approximately a 90° angle, and in females, it fuses at approximately 120°. Both genders have Adam’s apples! The difference in fusion means that the male vocal cords have more room to grow outward, and form a deeper voice. 
When an adult is hanged, throttled or strangled in a murder, the hyoid bone - the only bone in the body not directly connected to other bones - is almost always cracked or split apart. However, since it does not completely fuse until early adulthood, children and adolescents do not always show this distinctive sign.
Atlas d’Anatomie Descriptive du Corps Humain. C. Bonamy and Paul Broca, 1866.

It’s actually been known for a very long time that the hyoid is not “almost always cracked or split apart” in hangings or strangulations. Though there isn’t a ton of literature about it, reports of traumatic hyoid fracture in strangulation and hanging cases ranges from near nil to 67%. Probably the best-known study of this type (Ubelaker, 1992) found the highest rate of traumatic hyoid fracture occurs in manually-strangled adults with an incidence rate of 34%. In very rare cases, hyoid fracture can occur outside of hanging, throttling, and strangulation.
tl;dr strangulation definitely does not always equal traumatic hyoid fracture, and hyoid fracture sometimes does not mean strangulation.

Duders I was totally wrong. Well, mostly wrong. Or at least sort of wrong, which still warrants correction. Check out the links provided by XP! They’re definitely pointing in a different direction than my anatomy textbook.
…on a related note, damn do I wish that related fields of medicine would communicate more often. A 2002 anatomy text should not have information that’s been out of date for upwards of a decade.
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biomedicalephemera:

Top: Primary mammary blood vessels, deep tissue of nipple, outer nipple and areola
Bottom: Lymphatic supply to breast, vertical view of mammary duct exit, lactiferous ducts
The human breast is an odd organ, even among mammals. It is significantly developed even before pregnancy, while most mammals develop only the ductal regions (the nipple and its connecting supply) prior to parturition, and its variance between individuals can be massive.
The lactiferous ducts are the smallest units of the lactation (milk-supplying) system of the breast, and the epithelial cells within them extract the nutrients and liquid from the lymphatic and circulatory system when they’re triggered by the hormone prolactin, which is secreted both in response to labor and from suckling. Though the massive dose of prolactin from late-term pregnancy and giving birth is what kick-starts milk production, the suckling action is what keeps it going. In some humans (even some males), the prolactin secretion in response to sustained suckling is enough to begin producing milk, themselves.
Atlas d’Anatomie Descriptive du Corps Humain. C. Bonamy and Paul Broca, 1866.
biomedicalephemera:

Top: Primary mammary blood vessels, deep tissue of nipple, outer nipple and areola
Bottom: Lymphatic supply to breast, vertical view of mammary duct exit, lactiferous ducts
The human breast is an odd organ, even among mammals. It is significantly developed even before pregnancy, while most mammals develop only the ductal regions (the nipple and its connecting supply) prior to parturition, and its variance between individuals can be massive.
The lactiferous ducts are the smallest units of the lactation (milk-supplying) system of the breast, and the epithelial cells within them extract the nutrients and liquid from the lymphatic and circulatory system when they’re triggered by the hormone prolactin, which is secreted both in response to labor and from suckling. Though the massive dose of prolactin from late-term pregnancy and giving birth is what kick-starts milk production, the suckling action is what keeps it going. In some humans (even some males), the prolactin secretion in response to sustained suckling is enough to begin producing milk, themselves.
Atlas d’Anatomie Descriptive du Corps Humain. C. Bonamy and Paul Broca, 1866.
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corporisfabrica:

Max Brödel - an observational drawing of early 20th century brain surgery.
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bpod-mrc:

07 May 2014
Intestinal Shag Pile
Each of the cells lining our intestines is covered with a densely packed array of bristle-like projections known as the brush border (pictured). By increasing the surface area of the cell membrane, this microscopic shag pile carpet enhances nutrient absorption. It also defends against pathogens. Despite its importance, however, scientists know little about how the brush border is formed. Now, with the help of a powerful microscope, they’ve shown that as the bristles grow, they attach to each other at the tips with thread-like links. This is how they stay tightly packed. And the researchers have discovered that a protein called harmonin plays a key role in establishing these connections: in mice missing the protein, the brush border was poorly formed in parts of the intestine. The results could explain why people with Usher syndrome, a form of inherited deafness associated with abnormal harmonin, suffer with a mysterious gastro-intestinal disease.
Written by Daniel Cossins
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Image by Matthew Tyska and colleagues Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USACopyright Elsevier 2014 Research published in Cell, April 2014
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jewsee-medicalstudent:

Quadricuspid Aortic Valve.
These are the amazing cardiac MRI images of a middle-aged woman with hypertension and 3/6 systolic ejection murmur. The woman was diagnosed with the presence of a Quadricuspid Aortic Valve instead of a normal Aortic Valve with three leaflets .
The aortic valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. When the pressure in the left ventricle rises above the pressure in the aorta, the aortic valve opens, allowing blood to exit the left ventricle into the aorta. When the pressure in the left ventricle decreases, the aortic pressure forces the aortic valve to close. 
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common aortic valve abnormality, occurring in 2% of the population, and in this condition, instead of three cusps, the aortic valve has two cusps. The next most frequent aortic valve abnormality is an unicuspid aortic valve. Historically, quadricuspid aortic valves have been considered rare, most cases discovered incidentally at the time of cardiac surgery or at autopsy.
(Images and clinical informations via VCU Medical Center).
jewsee-medicalstudent:

Quadricuspid Aortic Valve.
These are the amazing cardiac MRI images of a middle-aged woman with hypertension and 3/6 systolic ejection murmur. The woman was diagnosed with the presence of a Quadricuspid Aortic Valve instead of a normal Aortic Valve with three leaflets .
The aortic valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. When the pressure in the left ventricle rises above the pressure in the aorta, the aortic valve opens, allowing blood to exit the left ventricle into the aorta. When the pressure in the left ventricle decreases, the aortic pressure forces the aortic valve to close. 
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common aortic valve abnormality, occurring in 2% of the population, and in this condition, instead of three cusps, the aortic valve has two cusps. The next most frequent aortic valve abnormality is an unicuspid aortic valve. Historically, quadricuspid aortic valves have been considered rare, most cases discovered incidentally at the time of cardiac surgery or at autopsy.
(Images and clinical informations via VCU Medical Center).
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brain-smudge:

Irving GeisGeis’s early sketch and resulting finished illustration of a hemoglobin molecule. (Courtesy of the Irving Geis Collection, Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
brain-smudge:

Irving GeisGeis’s early sketch and resulting finished illustration of a hemoglobin molecule. (Courtesy of the Irving Geis Collection, Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
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radiologysigns:

Which bone is fractured? 

ANSWER: http://goo.gl/gq15Rg